Encompasses the study of the brain, the gut, and their interactions with relevance to the understanding and management of gastrointestinal motility and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Specifically, neurogastroenterology focuses on the functions, malfunctions, and the malformations of the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric divisions of the digestive tract.
Peristalsis is a series of radially symmetrical contractions and relaxations of muscles which propagate down a muscular tube. In humans and other mammals, peristalsis is found in the smooth muscles of the digestive tract to propel contents through the digestive system. The word is derived from New Latin and comes from the Greek peristallein, "to wrap around," from peri-, "around" + stallein, "to place". Peristalsis was discovered in 1899 by the work of physiologists William Bayliss and Ernest Starling. Working on the small intestines of dogs, they found that the response of increasing the pressure in the intestine caused the contraction of the muscle wall above the point of stimulation and the relaxation of the muscle wall below the point of stimulation
Gastrointestinal Immunology mainly focus on differentiation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, regulation of innate and adaptive immune cell differentiation and function, genetic and epigenetic factors regulating immune responses and inflammation. It also gives idea about the clinical research, clinical trials and epidemiology studies on gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases including but not limited to gluten-sensitive enteropathy, inflammatory bowel disease, and gastritis, malabsorption syndromes, diarrhea, gastric and duodenal ulcers and disease of the salivary glands excluding cystic fibrosis.
Digestion of food is the crucial function of the gastrointestinal tract. Many gastrointestinal diseases have nutritional effects. The role will be on the liver in regulating the availability of carbohydrates, lipids and essential substrates to peripheral tissues. The clinical features and specific effects of malnutrition on the gastrointestinal tract and liver will be discussed along with diet therapy in gastrointestinal disease.
Pediatric Gastroenterology is subjected with treating the gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas of children from infancy till adulthood. Testing is done using PH Probes, Breath Test, Liver Biopsies, Endoscopic Procedure.
The main aim of the study of pediatric gastroenterology is to scale down infant and child rate of deaths, control the spread of infectious disease, and promote healthy lifestyles for a long disease-free life and aid ease the issue of children and adolescents.
Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus: the virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness.
Hepatitis B Treatment. About 25 percent of people with chronic hepatitis B can be cured with a drug called pegylated interferon-alpha, which is taken as a weekly injection for six months. The alternative is suppression of the virus with oral medications, such as lamivudine and adefovir.
High-definition and magnification endoscopes with electronic chromo endoscopy capability make it easier to visualize subtle lesions, such as small and flat polyps and patches of dysplastic gastrointestinal mucosa. They allow accurate characterization of polyps, which may in the future allow us to selectively resect only precancerous colonic polyps, while ignoring small benign hyperplastic polyps, which in turn will result in significant healthcare savings. New digital choledochoscopes have vastly improved diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities within the bile and pancreatic duct. Confocal endomicroscopy now allows us to perform microscopic evaluation of living tissues, improving targeted biopsies in Barrett's esophagus and aiding in the evaluation of bile duct strictures and pancreatic cysts. Similarly, technological advances in endoscopic ultrasound, optical coherence tomography and spectroscopy hold great promise for improving diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for gastrointestinal disease.
Gastroenterology pharmacotherapy are rapidly evolving, including the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), irritable bowel syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and peptic ulcer disease. HCV treatment has radically changed in the past 2 years and now most patients are treatment candidates and have a high likelihood of permanent cure. Pharmacotherapy is now first-line treatment for patients with moderate to severe symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the mainstay of therapy in gastric and duodenal ulcers and GERD, although long-term use carries the risk of several side effects that should be considered.
Present research in gastrointestinal therapeutics and late headway targets spearheading endeavours and imaginative studies over all territories of gastroenterology. We respect your digests/Abstracts for both poster and oral presentation on Recent Advancement and present Research in Gastrointestinal Therapeutics.
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become a highly effective bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Meanwhile the efficacy of FMT for treating chronic diseases associated with microbial dysbiosis has so far been modest with a much higher variability in patient response. Notably, a number of studies suggest that FMT success is dependent on the microbial diversity and composition of the stool donor, leading to the proposition of the existence of FMT super-donors. The identification and subsequent characterization of super-donor gut microbiomes will inevitably advance our understanding of the microbial component of chronic diseases and allow for more targeted bacteriotherapy approaches in the future. Here, we review the evidence for super-donors in FMT and explore the concept of keystone species as predictors of FMT success. Possible effects of host-genetics and diet on FMT engraftment and maintenance are also considered. Finally, we discuss the potential long-term applicability of FMT for chronic disease and highlight how super-donors could provide the basis for dysbiosis-matched FMTs.
PSC is short for primary sclerosing cholangitis. It is a rare chronic disease characterized by inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts outside and/or inside the liver. The liver makes a yellow/green liquid called bile, which is carried by tiny tubes (i.e., bile ducts) from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is important for the efficient absorption of the food we eat, especially fats and certain vitamins that dissolve in fat, such as vitamins A, D, E and K. With PSC, bile does not flow well through the bile ducts and pools in the liver. That causes damage to liver cells. The resulting injury may, over time progress to scarring, which when advanced, is called cirrhosis of the liver.
Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive fibroobliterative cholangiopathy affecting the extra- and intrahepatic biliary tree to various degrees and resulting in obstructive bile flow, cholestasis and icterus in neonates. It is the most common cause of pediatric liver transplantation. The etiology of BA is still unclear, although there is some evidence pointing to viral, toxic, and multiple geneticfactors. For new therapeutic options otherthan livertransplantation to be developed, a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of BA is indispensable. The fact that the pathology of BA develops during a period of biliary growthand remodeling suggests an involvement of developmentalanomalies. Recent studies indicate an association of theetiology of BA with some genetic factors suchaslateralitygenes,epigeneticregulationand/ormicroRNA function. Inthis paper, we present an overview of recenadvances it he understanding of the disease focusing onbile duct developmental anomaly.
Aerodigestive programs provide coordinated interdisciplinary care to pediatric patients with complex congenital or acquired conditions affecting breathing, swallowing, and growth. Although there has been a proliferation of programs, as well as national meetings, interest groups and early research activity, there is, as of yet, no consensus definition of an aerodigestive patient, standardized structure, and functions of an aerodigestive program or a blueprint for research prioritization. The Delphi method was used by a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional panel of aerodigestive providers to obtain consensus on 4 broad content areas related to aerodigestive care: (1) definition of an aerodigestive patient, (2) essential construct and functions of an aerodigestive program, (3) identification of aerodigestive research priorities, and (4) evaluation and recognition of aerodigestive programs and future directions. After 3 iterations of survey, consensus was obtained by either a supermajority of 75% or stability in median ranking on 33 of 36 items. This included a standard definition of an aerodigestive patient, level of participation of specific pediatric disciplines in a program, essential components of the care cycle and functions of the program, feeding and swallowing assessment and therapy, procedural scope and volume, research priorities and outcome measures, certification, coding, and funding. We propose the first consensus definition of the aerodigestive care model with specific recommendations regarding associated personnel, infrastructure, research, and outcome measures. We hope that this may provide an initial framework to further standardize care, develop clinical guidelines, and improve outcomes for aerodigestive patients.